Should we look for 'q' in stdin? For now, if we're running as a command rather than a capture child,. If we're not running as a capture child, we might be running as. XXX - can we explicitly check whether we're. We assume that if the user wanted it to keep running. WSACleanup ;. Unfortunately, some files were, according to a comment in the "libpcap". The main thread. No data is passed in. LocalFree errorText ;. Since most implementations originate from BSD versions,.
Pretend we haven't seen it. Take care of byte order. Are there any versions that support only 2. Use the -n option. If that's unacceptable,. We therefore process only one packet. Basically, we. This might be a bug in WPCap. Therefore we provide an empty. Linux 2. If you want to be notified about new Wireshark releases you should subscribe to the wireshark-announce mailing list.
In late Gerald Combs needed a tool for tracking down network problems and wanted to learn more about networking so he started writing Ethereal the original name of the Wireshark project as a way to solve both problems. Ethereal was initially released after several pauses in development in July as version 0. Within days patches, bug reports, and words of encouragement started arriving and Ethereal was on its way to success. Not long after that Gilbert Ramirez saw its potential and contributed a low-level dissector to it.
In October, Guy Harris was looking for something better than tcpview so he started applying patches and contributing dissectors to Ethereal. So he started contributing dissectors and contributing patches. The list of people who have contributed to the project has become very long since then, and almost all of them started with a protocol that they needed that Wireshark or did not already handle. So they copied an existing dissector and contributed the code back to the team.
In , after ten years of development, Wireshark finally arrived at version 1. This release was the first deemed complete, with the minimum features implemented.
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Wireshark was initially developed by Gerald Combs. Ongoing development and maintenance of Wireshark is handled by the Wireshark team, a loose group of individuals who fix bugs and provide new functionality. There have also been a large number of people who have contributed protocol dissectors to Wireshark, and it is expected that this will continue.
You can find a list of the people who have contributed code to Wireshark by checking the about dialog box of Wireshark, or at the authors page on the Wireshark web site. All source code is freely available under the GPL. You are welcome to modify Wireshark to suit your own needs, and it would be appreciated if you contribute your improvements back to the Wireshark team. If you have problems or need help with Wireshark there are several places that may be of interest besides this guide, of course.
For example, it contains an explanation how to capture on a switched network, an ongoing effort to build a protocol reference, protocol-specific information, and much more. And best of all, if you would like to contribute your knowledge on a specific topic maybe a network protocol you know well , you can edit the wiki pages with your web browser. You can search for questions asked before and see what answers were given by people who knew about the issue.
Answers are ranked, so you can easily pick out the best ones. Before sending any mail to the mailing lists below, be sure to read the FAQ. It will often answer any questions you might have. This will save yourself and others a lot of time. Keep in mind that a lot of people are subscribed to the mailing lists.
The links to the archives are included on that page as well. You can search in the list archives to see if someone asked the same question some time before and maybe already got an answer. Before reporting any problems, please make sure you have installed the latest version of Wireshark. Instead, provide a download link. For bugs and feature requests, you can create an issue on Bugzilla and upload the file there. You can obtain this traceback information with the following commands on UNIX or Linux note the backticks :. Email backtrace. As with all things there must be a beginning and so it is with Wireshark.
To use Wireshark you must first install it. If you are running another operating system such as Linux or FreeBSD you might want to install from source. Several Linux distributions offer Wireshark packages but they commonly provide out-of-date versions. For that reason, you will need to know where to get the latest version of Wireshark and how to install it. This chapter shows you how to obtain source and binary packages and how to build Wireshark from source should you choose to do so.
Select the download link and then select the desired binary or source package. If you are building Wireshark from source you will likely need to download several other dependencies. This is covered in detail below. Windows installer names contain the platform and version. For example, Wireshark-win The Wireshark installer includes Npcap which is required for packet capture.
Official packages are signed by the Wireshark Foundation. You can choose to install several optional components and select the location of the installed package. The default settings are recommended for most users. On the Choose Components page of the installer you can select from the following:. Tools - Additional command line tools to work with capture files. By default the latest version of Npcap will be installed.
As mentioned above, the Wireshark installer also installs Npcap. The offical Wireshark Windows package will check for new versions and notify you when they are available. If you have the Check for updates preference disabled or if you run Wireshark in an isolated environment you should subcribe to the wireshark-announce mailing list to be notified of new versions. New versions of Wireshark are usually released every four to six weeks. Updating Wireshark is done the same way as installing it. Simply download and start the installer exe.
A reboot is usually not required and all your personal settings remain unchanged. Wireshark updates may also include a new version of Npcap. You may have to reboot your machine after installing a new Npcap version. You can uninstall Wireshark using the Programs and Features control panel. The Wireshark uninstaller provides several options for removal. The default is to remove the core components but keep your personal settings and Npcap.
Npcap is kept in case other programs need it. You can uninstall Npcap independently of Wireshark using the Npcap entry in the Programs and Features control panel. We strongly recommended using the binary installer for Windows unless you want to start developing Wireshark on the Windows platform. The official macOS packages are distributed as disk images. To install Wireshark simply open the disk image and run the enclosed installer. The installer package includes Wireshark, its related command line utilities, and a launch daemon that adjusts capture permissions at system startup.
See the included Read me first file for more details. Building Wireshark requires the proper build environment including a compiler and many supporting libraries. Unpack the source from its compressed tar file. Configure your source so it will build correctly for your version of UNIX. You can do this with the following command:. If this step fails you will have to look into the logs and rectify the problems, then rerun cmake. Once you have installed Wireshark with make install above, you should be able to run it by entering wireshark.
Many distributions use yum or a similar package management tool to make installation of software including its dependencies easier. If your distribution uses yum , use the following command to install Wireshark together with the Qt GUI:. If the above command fails because of missing dependencies, install the dependencies first, and then retry the step above. Use the following command to install Wireshark under Gentoo Linux with all of the extra features:. A number of errors can occur during the build and installation process. Some hints on solving these are provided here.
If the cmake stage fails you will need to find out why. You can check the file CMakeOutput. The last few lines of this file should help in determining the problem. You need to install its development package as well. If you cannot determine what the problems are, send an email to the wireshark-dev mailing list explaining your problem. Include the output from cmake and anything else you think is relevant such as a trace of the make stage. By now you have installed Wireshark and are likely keen to get started capturing your first packets. In the next chapters we will explore:. In the following chapters a lot of screenshots from Wireshark will be shown.
As Wireshark runs on many different platforms with many different window managers, different styles applied and there are different versions of the underlying GUI toolkit used, your screen might look different from the provided screenshots.
But as there are no real differences in functionality these screenshots should still be well understandable. The layout of the main window can be customized by changing preference settings. Packet list and detail navigation can be done entirely from the keyboard. In the packet detail, closes the selected tree item. Return or Enter. Additionally, typing anywhere in the main window will start filling in a display filter.
Most common menu items have keyboard shortcuts. This shows the file open dialog box that allows you to load a capture file for viewing. This lets you open recently opened capture files. Clicking on one of the submenu items will open the corresponding capture file directly.
This menu item lets you merge a capture file into the currently loaded one. This menu item brings up the import file dialog box that allows you to import a text file containing a hex dump into a new temporary capture. This menu item closes the current capture. This menu item saves the current capture. You cannot save a live capture while the capture is in progress. You must stop the capture in order to save. This menu item allows you to save the current capture file to whatever file you would like.
This menu item allows you to show a list of files in a file set. If the currently loaded file is part of a file set, jump to the next file in the set. If the currently loaded file is part of a file set, jump to the previous file in the set. This menu item allows you to export all or some of the packets in the capture file to file.
These menu items allow you to export the currently selected bytes in the packet bytes pane to a text file file in a number of formats including plain, CSV, and XML. This menu item allows you to print all or some of the packets in the capture file. This menu item allows you to quit from Wireshark. These menu items will copy the packet list, packet detail, or properties of the currently selected packet to the clipboard. This menu item brings up a toolbar that allows you to find a packet by many criteria. This menu item marks the currently selected packet. This menu item marks the currently selected packet as ignored.
This menu item set a time reference on the currently selected packet. Note that the ability to save packet comments depends on your file format. This will delete all comments from all packets. Note that the ability to save capture comments depends on your file format. This menu item brings up a dialog box for handling configuration profiles.
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This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to set preferences for many parameters that control Wireshark. You can also save your preferences so Wireshark will use them the next time you start it. Enabling colorization will slow down the display of new packets while capturing or loading capture files.
This item allows you to specify that Wireshark should scroll the packet list pane as new packets come in, so you are always looking at the last packet. If you do not specify this, Wireshark simply adds new packets onto the end of the list, but does not scroll the packet list pane. This menu items folds out with a list of all configured columns. These columns can now be shown or hidden in the packet list. Wireshark keeps a list of all the protocol subtrees that are expanded, and uses it to ensure that the correct subtrees are expanded when you display a packet.
This menu item expands all subtrees in all packets in the capture. This menu item brings up a submenu that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane based on the addresses of the currently selected packet. This makes it easy to distinguish packets belonging to different conversations. These menu items enable one of the ten temporary color filters based on the currently selected conversation. This menu item opens a dialog window in which a new permanent coloring rule can be created based on the currently selected conversation.
This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane according to filter expressions you choose. Information about various internal data structures. Shows the selected packet in a separate window. The separate window shows only the packet details and bytes. Jump to the recently visited packet in the packet history, much like the page history in a web browser.
Jump to the next visited packet in the packet history, much like the page history in a web browser. Bring up a window frame that allows you to specify a packet number, and then goes to that packet. Go to the corresponding packet of the currently selected protocol field. Move to the previous packet in the list. Move to the next packet in the list. Move to the previous packet in the current conversation. Move to the next packet in the current conversation.
This menu item stops the currently running capture and starts again with the same options, this is just for convenience. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit capture filters. You can name filters, and you can save them for future use. This menu item displays a dialog box that allows you to create and edit display filters. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit display filter macros. You can name filter macros, and you can save them for future use. This menu item adds the selected protocol item in the packet details pane as a column to the packet list.
These menu items will change the current display filter and apply the changed filter immediately. Depending on the chosen menu item, the current display filter string will be replaced or appended to by the selected protocol field in the packet details pane. Open a dialog showing some expert information about the captured packets. The amount of information will depend on the protocol and varies from very detailed to non-existent. XXX - add a new section about this and link from here.
Display user specified graphs e. All menu items will bring up a new window showing specific telephony related statistical information. These options allow you to work with the Lua interpreter optionally build into Wireshark. This allows you to extract credentials from the current capture file. Some of the dissectors have been instrumented to provide the module with usernames and passwords and more will be instrumented in te future.
The window dialog provides you the packet number where the credentials have been found, the protocol that provided them, the username and the password. Opening a Web browser might be unsupported in your version of Wireshark. If this is the case the corresponding menu items will be hidden. If calling a Web browser fails on your machine, nothing happens, or the browser starts but no page is shown, have a look at the web browser setting in the preferences dialog. The main toolbar provides provides quick access to frequently used items from the menu.
This toolbar cannot be customized by the user, but it can be hidden using the View menu if the space on the screen is needed to show more packet data. Items in the toolbar will be enabled or disabled greyed out similar to their corresponding menu items. For example, in the image below shows the main window toolbar after a file has been opened. Various file-related buttons are enabled, but the stop capture button is disabled because a capture is not in progress. Opens the file open dialog box, which allows you to load a capture file for viewing. Save the current capture file to whatever file you would like.
Closes the current capture. If you have not saved the capture, you will be asked to save it first. Find a packet based on different criteria. Jump back in the packet history. Hold down the Alt key Option on macOS to go back in the selection history. Jump forward in the packet history. Hold down the Alt key Option on macOS to go forward in the selection history. The filter toolbar lets you quickly edit and apply display filters. A syntax check of your filter string is done while you are typing. The background will turn red if you enter an incomplete or invalid string, and will become green when you enter a valid string.
Each line in the packet list corresponds to one packet in the capture file. While dissecting a packet, Wireshark will place information from the protocol dissectors into the columns. As higher level protocols might overwrite information from lower levels, you will typically see the information from the highest possible level only.
The Ethernet dissector will write its data such as the Ethernet addresses , the IP dissector will overwrite this by its own such as the IP addresses , the TCP dissector will overwrite the IP information, and so on. There are a lot of different columns available.
The first column shows how each packet is related to the selected packet. For example, in the image above the first packet is selected, which is a DNS request. Wireshark shows a rightward arrow for the request itself, followed by a leftward arrow for the response in packet 2. Why is there a dashed line? There are more DNS packets further down that use the same port numbers. Wireshark treats them as belonging to the same conversation and draws a line connecting them.
The packet list has an Intelligent Scrollbar which shows a miniature map of nearby packets. Each raster line of the scrollbar corresponds to a single packet, so the number of packets shown in the map depends on your physical display and the height of the packet list. In the image above the scrollbar shows the status of more than packets along with the 15 shown in the packet list itself. The protocols and fields of the packet shown in a tree which can be expanded and collapsed.
There is a context menu right mouse click available. Depending on the packet data, sometimes more than one page is available, e. In this case you can see each data source by clicking its corresponding tab at the bottom of the pane. The context menu right mouse click of the tab labels will show a list of all available pages. This can be helpful if the size in the pane is too small for all the tab labels. In general, the left side will show context related information, the middle part will show information about the current capture file, and the right side will show the selected configuration profile.
Drag the handles between the text areas to change the size. The middle part shows the current number of packets in the capture file. The following values are displayed:. This is displayed if you are trying to use a display filter which may have unexpected results.
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Setting up Wireshark to capture packets for the first time can be tricky. If you have any problems setting up your capture environment you should have a look at the guide mentioned above. This will start Wireshark capturing on interface eth0. This dialog box will only show the local interfaces Wireshark can access. As Wireshark might not be able to detect all local interfaces and it cannot detect the remote interfaces available there could be more capture interfaces available than listed.
If you are unsure which options to choose in this dialog box just try keeping the defaults as this should work well in many cases. By marking the checkboxes in the first column the interfaces are selected to be captured from. This field allows you to specify a capture filter for all interfaces that are currently selected.
Once a filter has been entered in this field, the newly selected interfaces will inherit the filter. It defaults to empty, or no filter. To make the change persistent you can use sysfsutils. This field allows you to specify the file name that will be used for the capture file. This field is left blank by default. If the field is left blank, the capture data will be stored in a temporary file. You can also click on the button to the right of this field to browse through the filesystem.
Once you have set the values you desire and have selected the options you need, simply click on Start to commence the capture or Cancel to cancel the capture. If some other process has put the interface in promiscuous mode you may be capturing in promiscuous mode even if you turn off this option. See the Wireshark FAQ for more information. This field allows you to specify the maximum amount of data that will be captured for each packet, and is sometimes referred to as the snaplen. If disabled the value is set to the maximum which will be sufficient for most protocols.
Some rules of thumb:. This field allows you to specify a capture filter. Capture filters can be used to limit which packets are captured from the interface s. In the left window the interface names are listed. The results of an individual interface are shown in the right window when it is selected. As a central point to manage interfaces this dialog box consists of three tabs to add or remove interfaces. To successfully add a pipe, this pipe must have already been created. Click the New button and type the name of the pipe including its path.
Alternatively, the Browse button can be used to locate the pipe. With the Save button the pipe is added to the list of available interfaces. Afterwards, other pipes can be added. To remove a pipe from the list of interfaces it first has to be selected. Then click the Delete button. If a new local interface is added, for example, a wireless interface has been activated, it is not automatically added to the list to prevent the constant scanning for a change in the list of available interfaces. To renew the list a rescan can be done. One way to hide an interface is to change the preferences.
The changes are also saved in the preferences file. In this tab interfaces on remote hosts can be added. One or more of these interfaces can be hidden. In contrast to the local interfaces they are not saved in the preferences file. To remove a host including all its interfaces from the list, it has to be selected.
Besides doing capture on local interfaces Wireshark is capable of reaching out across the network to a so called capture daemon or service processes to receive captured data from. This dialog and capability is only available on Microsoft Windows. The Remote Packet Capture Protocol service must first be running on the target platform before Wireshark can connect to it. Once installation is completed go to the Services control panel, find the Remote Packet Capture Protocol service and start it. Make sure you have outside access to port on the target platform.
This is the port where the Remote Packet Capture Protocol service can be reached by default. The remote capture can be further fine tuned to match your situation. The recursion in this saturates the link with duplicate traffic. You only should switch this off when capturing on an interface other than the interface connecting back to Wireshark. This dialog shows various characteristics and statistics for the selected interface. While capturing the underlying libpcap capturing engine will grab the packets from the network card and keep the packet data in a relatively small kernel buffer.
This data is read by Wireshark and saved into a capture file. By default Wireshark saves packets to a temporary file. Working with large files several hundred MB can be quite slow. This will spread the captured packets over several smaller files which can be much more pleasant to work with. Wireshark keeps context information of the loaded packet data, so it can report context related problems like a stream error and keeps information about context related protocols e. As it keeps this information only for the loaded file, using one of the multiple file modes may cut these contexts.
If the establishing phase is saved in one file and the things you would like to see is in another, you might not see some of the valuable context related information. If you are capturing on an Wireshark supports limiting the packet capture to packets that match a capture filter. Wireshark capture filters are written in libpcap filter language. Complete documentation can be found at the pcap-filter man page. A capture filter for telnet that captures traffic to and from a particular host.
This example captures telnet traffic to and from the host You can optionally precede this primitive with the keywords src dst and tcp udp which allow you to specify that you are only interested in source or destination ports and TCP or UDP packets respectively. The keywords tcp udp must appear before src dst. If these are not specified, packets will be selected for both the TCP and UDP protocols and when the specified address appears in either the source or destination port field. If Wireshark is running remotely using e.
This dialog box shows a list of protocols and their activity over time. A running capture session can be restarted with the same capture options as the last time, this will remove all packets previously captured. Restart is a convenience function and equivalent to a capture stop following by an immediate capture start. A restart can be triggered in one of the following ways:. Wireshark can read in previously saved capture files. However, drag-and-drop may not be available in all desktop environments.
This warning can be disabled in the preferences. In addition to its native file format pcapng , Wireshark can read and write capture files from a large number of other packet capture programs as well. The appearance of this dialog depends on the system. However, the functionality should be the same across systems. You can change the display filter and name resolution settings later while viewing the packets. However, loading huge capture files can take a significant amount of extra time if these settings are changed later, so in such situations it can be a good idea to set at least the filter in advance here.
It may not be possible to read some formats dependent on the packet types captured. Ethernet captures are usually supported for most file formats but it may not be possible to read other packet types such as PPP or IEEE You can choose which packets to save and which file format to be used. Not all information will be saved in a capture file. The following sections show some examples of this dialog box. You can convert capture files from one format to another by reading in a capture file and writing it out using a different format.
Wireshark can save the packet data in its native file format pcapng and in the file formats of other protocol analyzers so other tools can read the capture data. Some other protocol analyzers only look at a filename extensions. For example, you might need to use the.
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Sometimes you need to merge several capture files into one. For example, this can be useful if you have captured simultaneously from multiple interfaces at once e. This dialog box let you select a file to be merged into the currently loaded file. If your current data has not been saved you will be asked to save it first. Wireshark can read in an ASCII hex dump and write the data described into a temporary libpcap capture file. It can read hex dumps with multiple packets in them, and build a capture file of multiple packets. Wireshark understands a hexdump of the form generated by od -Ax -tx1 -v.
In other words, each byte is individually displayed and surrounded with a space. Each line begins with an offset describing the position in the packet, each new packet starts with an offset of 0 and there is a space separating the offset from the following bytes. The offset is a hex number can also be octal or decimal , of more than two hex digits.
Here is a sample dump that can be imported:. There is no limit on the width or number of bytes per line. Also the text dump at the end of the line is ignored. Byte and hex numbers can be uppercase or lowercase. Any lines of text between the bytestring lines are ignored.
The offsets are used to track the bytes, so offsets must be correct. Any line which has only bytes without a leading offset is ignored. An offset is recognized as being a hex number longer than two characters. Any text after the bytes is ignored e. Any hex numbers in this text are also ignored. An offset of zero is indicative of starting a new packet, so a single text file with a series of hexdumps can be converted into a packet capture with multiple packets. Packets may be preceded by a timestamp. These are interpreted according to the format given. If not the first packet is timestamped with the current time the import takes place.
Multiple packets are written with timestamps differing by one microsecond each. In general, short of these restrictions, Wireshark is pretty liberal about reading in hexdumps and has been tested with a variety of mangled outputs including being forwarded through email multiple times, with limited line wrap etc. There are a couple of other special features to note. Any line where the first non-whitespace character is will be ignored as a comment. Currently there are no directives implemented.
Wireshark User’s Guide
In the future these may be used to give more fine grained control on the dump and the way it should be processed e. Wireshark also allows the user to read in dumps of application-level data, by inserting dummy L2, L3 and L4 headers before each packet. This allows Wireshark or any other full-packet decoder to handle these dumps. This dialog box lets you select a text file, containing a hex dump of packet data, to be imported and set import parameters.
Once all input and import parameters are setup click Import to start the import. When completed there will be a new capture file loaded with the frames imported from the text file. As it can become tedious to work with a file set by hand, Wireshark provides some features to handle these file sets in a convenient way. All files of a file set share the same prefix e. To find the files of a file set, Wireshark scans the directory where the currently loaded file resides and checks for files matching the filename pattern prefix and suffix of the currently loaded file.
This simple mechanism usually works well but has its drawbacks. If several file sets were captured with the same prefix and suffix, Wireshark will detect them as a single file set. If files were renamed or spread over several directories the mechanism will fail to find all files of a set. The last line will contain info about the currently used directory where all of the files in the file set can be found.
Wireshark provides several ways and formats to export packet data. This section describes general ways to export data from the main Wireshark application. There are more specialized functions to export specific data which are described elsewhere. If you would like to be able to import any previously exported packets from a plain text file it is recommended that you:. Export packet data into PSML. This is an XML based format including only the packet summary. Export packet data into PDML. This is an XML based format including the packet details. If you have a capture running, this list is automatically updated every few seconds with any new objects seen.
The saved objects can then be opened or examined independently of Wireshark. Output to file: specifies that printing be done to a file, using the filename entered in the field or selected with the browse button. This field is where you enter the file to print to if you have selected Print to a file, or you can click the button to browse the filesystem. It is greyed out if Print to a file is not selected. Print command specifies that a command be used for printing. These Print command fields are not available on windows platforms. This field specifies the command to use for printing. It is typically lpr.
You would change it to specify a particular queue if you need to print to a queue other than the default. An example might be:. This field is greyed out if Output to file: is checked above. The packet range frame is a part of various output related dialog boxes. It provides options to select which packets should be processed by the output function. If the Captured button is set default , all packets from the selected rule will be processed.
If the Displayed button is set, only the currently displayed packets are taken into account to the selected rule. The packet format frame is a part of various output related dialog boxes. It provides options to select which parts of a packet should be used for the output function. Once you have captured some packets or you have opened a previously saved capture file, you can view the packets that are displayed in the packet list pane by simply clicking on a packet in the packet list pane, which will bring up the selected packet in the tree view and byte view panes.
You can then expand any part of the tree to view detailed information about each protocol in each packet. Clicking on an item in the tree will highlight the corresponding bytes in the byte view. It also has the Acknowledgment number in the TCP header selected, which shows up in the byte view as the selected bytes. This allows you to easily compare two or more packets, even across multiple files. Along with double-clicking the packet list and using the main menu there are a number of other ways to open a new packet window:.
The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this header, where to find the corresponding function in the main menu, and a description of each item. The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this pane, where to find the corresponding function in the main menu, and a short description of each item. This menu item applies a display filter with the address information from the selected packet. For example, the IP menu entry will set a filter to show the traffic between the two IP addresses of the current packet.
This menu item uses a display filter with the address information from the selected packet to build a new colorizing rule. Prepare a display filter based on the currently selected item and copy that filter to the clipboard. Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as raw binary. This menu item collapses the tree view of all packets in the capture list. This menu item uses a display filter with the information from the selected protocol item to build a new colorizing rule.
This menu item is the same as the File menu item of the same name. It allows you to export raw packet bytes to a binary file. Show the filter field reference web page corresponding to the currently selected protocol in your web browser. If the selected field has a corresponding packet such as the matching request for a DNS response, go to it. If the selected field has a corresponding packet such as the matching request for a DNS response, show the selected packet in a separate window.
The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this pane along with a short description of each item. Wireshark has two filtering languages: One used when capturing packets, and one used when displaying packets. In this section we explore that second type of filter: Display filters. Display filters allow you to concentrate on the packets you are interested in while hiding the currently uninteresting ones. They allow you to select packets by:. To select packets based on protocol type, simply type the protocol in which you are interested in the Filter: field in the filter toolbar of the Wireshark window and press enter to initiate the filter.
All protocol and field names are entered in lowercase. As you might have noticed, only packets of the TCP protocol are displayed now e. The packet numbering will remain as before, so the first packet shown is now packet number When using a display filter, all packets remain in the capture file. The display filter only changes the display of the capture file but not its content! You can filter on any protocol that Wireshark understands.
You can also filter on any field that a dissector adds to the tree view, but only if the dissector has added an abbreviation for the field. For example, to narrow the packet list pane down to only those packets to or from the IP address To remove the filter, click on the Clear button to the right of the filter field.
Wireshark provides a simple but powerful display filter language that allows you to build quite complex filter expressions. You can compare values in packets as well as combine expressions into more specific expressions. The following sections provide more information on doing this.
Every field in the packet details pane can be used as a filter string, this will result in showing only the packets where this field exists. For example: the filter string: tcp will show all packets containing the tcp protocol. You can build display filters that compare values using a number of different comparison operators. Protocol or text field match Perl regualar expression. In addition, all protocol fields have a type.
Display Filter Field Types provides a list of the types and example of how to express them. Can be 8, 16, 24, 32, or 64 bits. You can express integers in decimal, octal, or hexadecimal. The following display filters are equivalent:. A boolean field is present in the protocol decode only if its value is true. For example, tcp. The example above match packets that contains the 3-byte sequence 0x81, 0x60, 0x03 anywhere in the UDP header or payload. Above example match packets where SIP To-header contains the string "a" anywhere in the header.
Comparisons are case-insensitive. Note: Wireshark needs to be built with libpcre in order to be able to use the matches resp. Wireshark allows you to select subsequences of a sequence in rather elaborate ways. After a label you can place a pair of brackets  containing a comma separated list of range specifiers. The example above uses the n:m format to specify a single range.
In this case n is the beginning offset and m is the length of the range being specified. The example above uses the n-m format to specify a single range. In this case n is the beginning offset and m is the ending offset. The example above uses the :m format, which takes everything from the beginning of a sequence to offset m. It is equivalent to 0:m. The example above uses the n: format, which takes everything from offset n to the end of the sequence. The example above uses the n format to specify a single range.
In this case the element in the sequence at offset n is selected. This is equivalent to n Wireshark allows you to string together single ranges in a comma separated list to form compound ranges as shown above. Wireshark allows you to test a field for membership in a set of values or fields. This can be considered a shortcut operator, as the previous expression could have been expressed as:. This is not merely a shortcut for tcp.
The membership operator instead tests the same field against the range condition. The upper and lower functions can used to force case-insensitive matches: lower http. Note that the len function yields the string length in bytes rather than multi-byte characters. Usually an IP frame has only two addresses source and destination , but in case of ICMP errors or tunneling, a single packet might contain even more addresses.
These packets can be found with count ip. The string function converts a field value to a string, suitable for use with operators like "matches" or "contains". Integer fields are converted to their decimal representation. Using the! Often people use a filter string to display something like ip.
Then they use ip. Unfortunately, this does not do the expected. Instead, that expression will even be true for packets where either source or destination IP address equals 1. The reason for this, is that the expression ip. As an IP datagram contains both a source and a destination address, the expression will evaluate to true whenever at least one of the two addresses differs from 1. If you want to filter out all packets containing IP datagrams to or from IP address 1. As protocols evolve they sometimes change names or are superseded by newer standards.
If a protocol dissector originally used the older names and fields for a protocol the Wireshark development team might update it to use the newer names and fields. In such cases they will add an alias from the old protocol name to the new one in order to make the transition easier. You can still use the old filter names for the time being, e.
Support for the deprecated fields may be removed in the future. However if you are new to Wireshark or are working with a slightly unfamiliar protocol it can be very confusing to try to figure out what to type. When you first bring up the Filter Expression dialog box you are shown a tree of field names, organized by protocol, and a box for selecting a relation. You can define filters with Wireshark and give them labels for later use. This can save time in remembering and retyping some of the more complex filters you use.
The mechanisms for defining and saving capture filters and display filters are almost identical. Both will be described here but the differences between these two will be marked as such. You must use Save to save your filters permanently. OK or Apply will not save the filters and they will be lost when you close Wireshark.
The filter name will only be used in this dialog to identify the filter for your convenience, it will not be used elsewhere. You can add multiple filters with the same name, but this is not very useful. You can define filter macros with Wireshark and give them labels for later use. You can easily find packets once you have captured some packets or have read in a previously saved capture file.
Enter a display filter string into the text entry field and click the Find button. The value to be found will be syntax checked while you type it in. If the syntax check of your value succeeds, the background of the entry field will turn green, if it fails, it will turn red. You can easily jump to specific packets with one of the menu items in the Go menu. When you enter a packet number and press press Go to packet Wireshark will jump to that packet.
If a protocol field is selected which points to another packet in the capture file, this command will jump to that packet. A marked packet will be shown with black background, regardless of the coloring rules set. Marking a packet can be useful to find it later while analyzing in a large capture file. Marked packet information is not stored in the capture file or anywhere else. It will be lost when the capture file is closed.
You can use packet marking to control the output of packets when saving, exporting, or printing. There are several ways to mark and unmark packets. From the Edit menu you can select from the following:. You can also mark and unmark a packet by clicking on it in the packet list with the middle mouse button.
Wireshark will then pretend that they not exist in the capture file. An ignored packet will be shown with white background and gray foreground, regardless of the coloring rules set. Ignored packet information is not stored in the capture file or anywhere else. There are several ways to ignore and unignore packets. While packets are captured, each packet is timestamped. These timestamps will be saved to the capture file, so they will be available for later analysis.
If you use Seconds it would show simply 1 and if you use Nanoseconds it shows 1. The user can set time references to packets. A time reference is the starting point for all subsequent packet time calculations. It will be useful, if you want to see the time values relative to a special packet, e. The time references will not be saved permanently and will be lost when you close the capture file. If one of the other time display formats are used, time referencing will have no effect and will make no sense either.
All subsequent packets will show the time since the last time reference. It can be very helpful to see a protocol in the way that the application layer sees it.